Learn more About Sudan

Sudan.  On the top is the outline of all of Sudan and each of its states. The states are named. (North to south, west to east, roughly: Northern, River Nile, Red Sea, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Khartoum, Kassala, White Nile, Jazira, Gedaref, West Darfur, Central Darfur, South Darfur, East Darfur, West Kordofan, South Kordofan, Sennar, Blue Nile.)  Below that to the left is a silhouette of Africa with the northeast in a gold box. It is blown up as an inset showing Sudan surrounded by (counterclockwise from top: Egypt, Libya, Chad, CAR, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea.)  To the right of that is the same set out outlines from above, but the capitals of each state are indicated. (In same order as above: Dongola, Ed Damer, Port Sudan, Al Fasher, El Obeid, Khartoum, Kassala, Rabak, Wad Medani, Gedaref, Ag Geneina, Zalingi, Nyala, Ad Du'ayn, El Fula, Kadugli, Singa, Ed Damazine.)  On both details of Sudan, there is a dotted line portioning out part of West Kordofan. This is Abyei, which is in both Sudan and South Sudan.  There's a green, red, white, and black color block border around the whole thing.
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The citizens of Sudan have been caught in the middle of a war between their country’s military—the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)—and a coalition of Arab tribal militias—the Rapid Support Forces (RSF).

It’s been going on since April 15, 2023, and it’s sustained because (of course) both sides have foreign backers. Much of the fighting has been in and around the country’s capital, Khartoum, and into Jazira state. Darfur (which you may remember from the genocide against the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups since 2002) has also continued to be targeted.

Both the SAF and the RSF are fighting for control of the country (the SAF is currently the de facto government). However, the besieged and displaced civilians want Sudan to be a democracy.

The RSF’s and SAF’s indiscriminate warring has forced the internal displacement of over 6 million people and has led almost 2 million people to seek safety outside of the country. The whole country is at risk of famine.

There are also indirect effects on the citizens, like health issues arising from increased gold mining—the bounty of which foreign actors are receiving in exchange for their support in the conflict. And much of the country is in an ongoing communications blackout.

Sudan Regions

Note: I don’t know if “Northeastern” and “Southeastern” are official or popular regional distinctions. I grouped the states this way for ease of mapping.


I alluded to the Darfur Genocide above. You can read more about it from Relief Web here. The crucial point is, it hasn’t stopped. The main antagonists from the original genocidal massacres, the Janjaweed militia, is one of the coalition that makes up the RSF.

After Khartoum state, Darfur is where most internally displaced people come from. Those that don’t escape suffer violence at the hands and weapons of the RSF. Human Rights Watch has an extensive article on the ongoing violence in Darfur.


Many Sudanese displaced in or to the northeast have fled to Egypt or to Port Sudan, from where people can seek passage to nonadjacent countries, or to where aid from overseas arrives.

Unfortunately, the hostilities in the Red Sea in retaliation for Yemen’s blockade of Israel’s ports has posed a challenge to travel. (Western mainstream media blames Yemen’s Ansar Allah—who they indiscriminately call “Houthis”—but we know better [YouTube].)


Khartoum the city, located in Khartoum the state, is the capital of both the state and the country. A great deal of the fighting between SAF and RSF has occurred here, and the largest number of internally displaced people are from this area.

Fighting has also been pretty heavy in and around Wad Medani, the capital of Jazira state, just south of Khartoum.


In and around major cities throughout Kordofan, there have been battles between the SAF and RSF as well as as bombing.

The area in West Kordofan marked “Abyei” is a region claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan, and consequently, suffers its own violence.

Links to Learn More About Sudan